Sucker rod pump classification
Sucker rod pumps include a wide range of methods used to increase oil recovery. Since classifications have varied significantly over the years mainly due to the development of new technologies, the first step in this research is to include a new classification of sucker rod pumps that includes all the new technological developments that fall under this category.
Beam rod pumping
The beam rod pumping unit is the most applied sucker rod method. This method will also be the main focus of this research. It is mainly composed of a surface unit and downhole pump and rods. The surface unit has multiple variations based on size and application. The three main types are the Type A, C, and M beam rods. Type A (Air balanced) uses compressed air to counterbalance the load that comes from the rods. Type A has the benefit of reduced weight and lower installation and transportation costs. Type M (Mark II) lowers the torque and power requirements throughout the pumping cycle. Type C is the conventional beam rod pump.
Coiled tubing sucker rod
The use of coiled tubing as sucker rods is mainly performed in small diameter holes. This technology was first applied in Argentina and was then used in the USA and Canada. It has the advantage of reducing cost since the coiled tubing acts as both the production string and the sucker rod. This method also reduces the time during well intervention jobs and allows the conduction of various operations in live wells without the need for kill fluid. An example of a coiled tubing sucker rod is presented in Fig. 3. Some of the key design parameters in this type of sucker rod pump are the coiled tubing material, fatigue failure analysis, corrosion resistance, completion design, non-return valve (one-way valve), gas separation, and surface facilities ;
Hydraulically actuated sucker rods
Hydraulically actuated sucker rods have been present since the 1940s. They contain a hydraulic cylinder at the surface used to impart a reciprocating motion on the polished rod and the rod string and the downhole assembly which is almost identical to the conventional beam unit.
A valve bonnet acts as a cover on the valve body. It is commonly semi-permanently screwed into the valve body or bolted onto it. During the manufacture of the valve, the internal parts are put into the body and then the bonnet is attached to hold everything together inside. To access internal parts of a valve, a user would take off the bonnet, usually for maintenance. Many valves do not have bonnets; for example, plug valves usually do not have bonnets. Many ball valves do not have bonnets since the valve body is put together in a different style, such as being screwed together at the middle of the valve body.
An assembly includes the part through which a valve plug stem moves and a means for sealing against leakage along the stem. It usually provides a means for mounting the actuator. Sealing against leakage may be accomplished by packing or a bellows. A bonnet assembly may include a packing lubricator assembly with or without isolating valve. Radiation fins or an extension bonnet may be used to maintain a temperature differential between the valve body and sealing means.
Asahi supplies Down Hole Motors commonly used for directional drilling in coal and hard rock mining as well as civil construction. They are also used as an alternative to conventional deflection style drilling where wedges are used.
The Downhole Motor is driven via fluid pumped into the motor, which then turns it into a mechanical rotary motion through the form of a rotor. This rotary motion is applied to a Drill Bit (either PCD or impregnated diamond) and attached to the end of the motor to cut into the formation being drilled.
The direction of the motor can be determined by a “bent sub”. These subs can be fitted to the DHM to adjust the “angle” of the motor and how fast it can turn within the hole.
IMPORTANCE OF CHOOSING THE RIGHT EQUIPMENT FOR OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION
Pieces of both static and rotating oil production equipment are commonly used across every corner of the entire hydrocarbons industry, regardless of whether you are considering upstream, midstream, or downstream. Static equipment covers a larger percentage of the current global market, consisting of everything from valves and heat exchangers to furnaces and boilers. Rotating equipment covers a smaller percentage of the current global market, consisting of everything from compressors and turbines to pumps.
During both oil and gas production, the use of static and rotating equipment has to be utilized at every single step. Here are some of the most important pieces of oil production equipment that you need to consider.
Valves are a vital piece of equipment when it comes to the production of oil and gas. They are generally used to control the flow of either substance, but they are also used for a variety of other jobs. You can find them in both pipelines and refineries, as well as in a number of other places.
During oil and gas production, boilers are usually used to generate a large amount of steam. This steam can then be used for a variety of different purposes. These purposes include everything from steam stripping and steam distillation, to process heating and vacuum distillation.
This means that a boiler is a very fundamental part of any refinery, as it acts as a closed vessel to convert all of the water that lies within it into steam, sterilizing the product that lies waiting inside by reaching appropriate processing temperatures that would otherwise be very difficult to reach.
When looking into a suitable furnace for use in the oil and gas industry, you will usually come across one of two different options. This is because most companies use either:
Cracking furnaces (or)
Some companies believe that it is best to own both. These furnaces can be used across the board, in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries.
Most of the time, furnaces are used to enable the combustion of either solid materials, liquid materials, or gaseous fuels to generate a source of heat.
If you are planning to ensure that the refining process of your venture into the oil and gas industries works well, then you need to ensure that you have a high-quality heat exchanger. They are often used within cracking units during the process of separating oil from water. They are also commonly used in the liquefaction process that can be found in natural gas production sectors.
The pumping unit is the mechanism that converts the rotary motion of the prime mover into the reciprocating vertical movement required at the polished rod. Most types of pumping units utilize a walking beam, inherited from the days of the cable-tool drilling rigs. Beam-type sucker rod pumping units are basically a four-bar mechanical linkage, the main elements of which are:
1. The crank arm, which rotates with the slow-speed shaft of the gear reducer,
2. The pitman, which connects the crank arm to the walking beam,
3. The portion of the walking beam from the equalizer bearing to the center bearing, and
4. The fixed distance between the saddle bearing and the crankshaft.
The operation of the above linkage ensures that the rotary motion input to the system by the prime mover is converted into a vertical reciprocating movement, output at the horsehead. The sucker rods, attached to the horsehead, follow this movement and drive the bottom hole pump. Although there are different arrangements of pumping units available, all employ the same basic component parts detailed above.
Since the vast majority of pumping units used worldwide belong to the beam-type class, the following sections will primarily deal with the structural and operational features of several versions of these units. The ratings and other technical specifications of beam-pumping units are covered by the American Petroleum Institute in its publications. Non-API pumping units are also available and are mainly used for long-stroke sucker-rod pumping or for special conditions.
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